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“In preparing for battle, I have always found that plans are useless, but planning is indispensable.”

General Dwight D. Eisenhower

From the current landscape, the need to change the way of managing a business radically is emerging, starting from the redefinition of the business model. Therefore, a key element is to redefine this cognitive structure to make sense of a complex and ever-changing context.

A correct structure will lead to a successful business; conversely, inappropriate mental models will result in inadequate responses to the context.

A business model can be used as a tool to encourage business changes and to adapt the business to the current situation. The term “business model” is relatively young, but a very clear and detailed definition of a business model is given by Osterwalder, Pigneur, and Tucci (2005):

“A business model is a conceptual tool that contains a set of elements and their relationships and allows expressing the business logic of a specific company. It is a description of the value that a company offers to one or more customer segments and the architecture of the company and its network of partners aimed at creating, marketing, and delivering this value proposition and relationship capital, to generate advantageous and sustainable income streams.”

Together with Professor Giorgio Gandellini, we address the dichotomy between a plan and planning.